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Breast Augmentation

Breast augmentation and augmentation mammoplasty are plastic surgery terms for the breast-implant and the fat-graft mammoplasty approaches used to increase the size, change the shape, and alter the texture of the breasts of a woman. As an elective cosmetic surgery, primary augmentation changes the aesthetics — of size, shape, and texture — of healthy breasts.


For breast reconstruction,there are two types of breast implants commonly used :
1. saline implants filled with sterile saline solution
2. silicone implants filled with viscous silicone gel

Indications

An augmentation mammoplasty for placing breast implants has three therapeutic purposes:
1. Primary augmentation: to aesthetically augment the size, form, and feel of the breasts.
2. Primary reconstruction:To replace breast tissues damaged by trauma (blunt, penetrating, blast), disease, and failed anatomic development (tuberous breast deformity).
3. Revision and reconstruction: to revise (correct) the outcome of a previous breast reconstruction surgery.

Operation

The placement of a breast implant device is performed with four types of surgical incisions:
1. Inframammary: an incision made below the breast, in the infra-mammary fold (IMF).It is used most commonly.
2. Periareolar: an incision made along the areolar periphery (border)
3. Transaxillary: an incision made to the axilla (armpit),
4. Transumbilical: a trans-umbilical breast augmentation (TUBA) is a less common implant-device insertion technique wherein the incision is at the navel, and the dissection tunnels superiorly

Inserting and placing the breast implant

The breast implant is inserted into a pocket. Today, there is a choice between the two types of placements:
• A submuscular placement - under the pectoral muscle. When placed here, the patient may take slightly longer to recover, compared to subglandular placement, and may also experience a little more post-operative pain.
• A submammary (subglandular) placement - behind the breast tissue, over the pectoral muscle.
Techniques used today for placing breast implants have significantly improved recovery times.

Risks and complications associated with breast augmentation:
• Capsular contracture - hardening of the area around the implant, this can distort the shape of the implant, and can also cause pain
• Painful breasts
• Infection
• Nipple and/or breast sensation may change - this is nearly always temporary
• The implant ruptures or leaks
• Bleeding
• Fluid Accumulation

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